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(page numbers in brackets) Notes on the text The complete book is shown in this single web page. The Ancient Schools in the City of London and Christ's Hospital, in Sir Walter Besant's London, The City. Besides the foundation of grammar, in its wide sense, Quintilian would have every budding orator learn mathematics, including geometry, from the mathematician, music from the musician, and the art of gesticulation from the actor. 321 relieved grammar schoolmasters and other professors (professores) from military and municipal service, while leaving them open to accept municipal honours, 'so that they may more readily enter numerous pupils in liberal studies'. This, it has been conjectured, was with a view to preventing the appointment of Christians.
You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various chapters. For these last items he is only repeating Greek formulæ and does not represent actual Roman practice. 305-306, with vicarious liberality, ordered the municipality of Augustodunum (Autun) to pay Eumenius, the master of the rhetoric school, from the public funds a salary of 600,000 sesterces (4800 a year). According to Augustine and others, he also by edict prohibited Christians from teaching in the schools; but as there is no record of any such edict forthcoming, this accusation must be received with the caution due to all the statements made by early Christian apologists about their opponents. 376, went even further in extending the interference of the central authority, charging the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul that 'in all towns which are called metropolis', equivalent in modern parlance to county boroughs, 'notable professors should be elected', and paid according to a scale of salaries laid down, viz.
'Grammar', he says, 'is a necessity to boys, a pleasure to their elders, an [page 17] agreeable companion in retirement, and is the only branch of study which is of more use than show.' Grammar schools, Quintilian complains, then encroached on the rhetoric schools.
A grammar schoolmaster must know music, since he has to teach metre, besides philology and grammar; astronomy and philosophy, as he has to explain Empedocles and Lucretius; and must have no small knowledge of rhetoric since he has to explain everything fully and clearly.
These recommendations, however, certainly did not prevail, and the historians and orators were read in grammar schools, and rhetoric and declamations practised in them at Rome and afterwards throughout Christendom till at least the eighteenth century.
While, however, he complains that the grammar school overlaps the rhetoric school, he would have the rhetorician trench on the grammarian's province, and, restricting the latter to the explanation of the poets, begin with reading the historians and the orators.
Of the 161 documents printed, 142 relate to the period before 1547, and 19 of these to the period before the Norman Conquest. An explanation of the origin and true meaning of the term. Greek he therefore never learnt properly, he could not understand the Greek fathers on the Trinity, and falls into some strange mistakes over the New Testament in consequence (Sources of the De Civitate Dei, 1906).
English Schools at the Reformation, xvi, 122, and 346 pp. Part I sums up and explains by reference to previous history, Part II; which contains the Certificates made under the Acts for the dissolution of Colleges and Chantries, so far as they relate to schools, and the warrants issued under Edward VI for the re-grant of endowments to the few schools which were re-endowed by him as Free Grammar Schools. Augustine abuses Homer, as Plato did, for the immoral behaviour of his gods, and he comments on dropping the h in human as being considered a worse crime than hating humans.
So the invitation to contribute this volume to Messrs. He played too much at games of ball, loving the pride of winning, was eager for the shows and sports of his elders, and, as he did not want to learn, he learnt badly.Methuen's popular series of Antiquary's Books was readily accepted. 'I have never', he says, 'thoroughly understood why I hated Greek literature in which I was dipped as a little boy.The plan of these books, however, excludes references to authorities: an exclusion peculiarly unfortunate for historical statements, many of which are so contradictory to received opinions that they will appear at first sight incredible to a great many people, and which rest largely on manuscripts still for the most part unprinted and unpublished. For I liked Latin, not indeed that which the preparatory masters taught me (quas primi magistri), but that which those who are called grammarians (grammatici) teach.There is, however, not a single statement in this book not founded on verifiable authority. For as to the primary instruction, in which reading, writing, and arithmetic are learnt, I thought it no less of a burden and a punishment than the whole of Greek.' Yet now he would rather forget the wanderings of Æneas or the death of Dido which he wept over than the more certain learning of reading and writing.
The relevant extracts from many of the manuscript and other recondite sources have now been printed verbatim, or detailed references given, in previous publications. 'But though a veil hangs over the entrance of the grammar school (gramaticarum scolarum), yet it is rather a covering of error than the honour due to a mystery.' But still 'one and one are two and two and two are four was a hateful sing-song', while 'the wooden horse, the burning Troy, and the shade of Creusa were a charming vision'. Though Chrysippus had approved, he strongly disapproves of corporal punishment, as fit only for slaves, and tending to harden, not to reform.